European Society Ecology

Sustainability is the talk of the hour and refers to the longevity of the human economic systems with minimum impact on the environment. Sustainability also refers to major global concerns such as oil depletion and global warming due to climatic changes. In a nutshell, sustainability is about sustaining oneself by sufficiently meeting needs in the present without making compromises for the future generations.

The study of life, the environment, relations between the organisms and their environment, climatic conditions attribute to Ecology. Ecological crises have cropped up due to unfavorable environmental conditions which pose as a threat to survival of species. An increase in temperature, predation, less rainfall, over population can all lead to varies crisis situations such as extinction or global warming. Some of the ecological crises faced by us in the recent past include the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in 1989, off the Alaska coast; crisis of the ozone layer hole; nuclear meltdown in 1986 at Chernobyl, volcanic eruptions, deforestations, disappearance of many species leading to extinction. Global warming is slowly taking a toll on our lives, at its own pace. People fail to realize that the impacts of this ecological crisis can be devastating and non-curable. It has therefore become mandatory to take initiatives and spread awareness among the entire population.

Various ecological societies in the European continent have joined hands and formed the European Ecological Foundation (EEF). Representatives and elected members of the different member societies form the council of EEF. The primary objective of this organization is to promote the science of ecology in Europe. The EEF brings together all ecological scientists in Europe to discuss matters of interest. The discussion on ecology is shared throughout the community of scientists through publications and meetings. The EEF promotes collaboration on matters that have a pan-European context, interacts with and lends support to other international organizations.

Some of the members of the European Ecological Foundation are:

British Ecological Society, UK and Republic of Ireland
Czech Union of Ecologists, Czech Republic
Greek Ecologists’ Association, Greece
Hungarian Ecological Society, Hungary
Institute of Ecology, Poland
Lithuanian Ecological Society, Lithuania
Polish Ecological Society Petecol, Poland
Portuguese Ecological Society SPECO, Portugal
Romanian Ecological Society, Romania
Slovak Ecological Society, Slovakia
Société Française d’Ecologie, France and Belgium
Spanish Ecological Society, Spain
The Netherlands Flemish Ecological Society Necov, the Netherlands and Flanders
Turkish Ecological Society, Turkey

The European Ecological Societies conduct meetings all round the year to discuss the ecological issues on a global perspective. The scientists/research students present papers and posters on a number of related topics. The European Ecological Societies support ecological research and take measures to publish the findings. Many journals and bulletins are published which deal with experiments on endangered species, environmental concerns, greenhouse gases affecting the atmosphere and so on.

Online Range Ecology Masters Degree Courses

Range or range lands are large, barren lands that are not suitable for plant growth, and thereby for agriculture and cultivation. The main use of range lands is as a source of continuous forage for cattle. Ranges can also act as source of natural resources like minerals and timber. Also range lands can be converted as spaces for recreation and enjoyment. An ideal range land is one which provides all the above-mentioned uses. It should continuously provide foliage for domestic animals; it should provide natural resources; also it should have the spatial requirements to be converted as a recreational park. For converting a range land into a multi-purpose eco-system, it should be managed professionally and scientifically. A branch of science has emerged for this purpose. It is called the management of range ecology. Generally the management of range ecology is related with the sciences of environment and agriculture.

There are a number of universities and educational institutions in United States that offer post-graduate courses in management of range lands. Colorado State University, Nova Southeastern University, Washington State University, Oregon State University, Montana State University, University of Florida, Brigham Young University and University of Idaho are some of the popular universities in United States that offer post-graduate courses in range management. The number of students enrolling for the subject of range ecology and management is continuously increasing thanks to the good career prospects the subject offers in various government and ecological organizations.

The idea of distance education has gained an advantage when the personal computer and internet became common household items. Many universities are quick to spot the advent of technology and the opportunities it offers. Such universities began to offer online learning facility for their regular courses. In the online learning program, students can register themselves through the website of the university and choose a course that they like to learn. The university then sends study materials to the students through internet. Some universities even provide video conferencing facility for creating a real-life class-room learning atmosphere. There are several universities that allow students to obtain masters degree on range ecology and its management through internet even though this is not a common and traditional specialization like physics or zoology.

The Animal and Range Sciences Department of Montana State University offers a post-graduate degree course on animal and range sciences. The Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences offers an online masters degree course on environmental management, part of which involves management of range ecology, as part of the Duke Environmental Leadership Program. Nova Southeastern University offers an online distance learning program, through which one can enroll for masters degree on range ecology. The Department of Rangeland Ecology and Management of Oregon State University also offers a post-graduate course on range ecology and management. The course is accredited by the Society for Range Management, which is the premier institution of range land management in United States.

Living Environment (Biology) Regents FAQ

Q. Do I need the Living Environment Regents to graduate? What is a passing grade?

A. In order to graduate with a regents diploma from a New York State public school (and from some private schools), students must pass at least one science regents exam. This does not have to be the Living Environment Regents- the Chemistry, Physics, or Earth Science Regents will also fulfill this requirement. However, to get an Advanced Regents Diploma, students need to pass at least two science Regents Exams, and one of them must be the Living Environment Regents.

A passing score for any Regents Exam is 65% (as of 2011).

Q. What qualifications do your Living Environment Regents tutors have?

A. All of our tutors are very experienced educators. As of the summer of 2011, our biology tutors have an average of 9 years experience teaching biology. Their degrees range from a BS in Biology to an MD.

Q. How should I prepare for the Living Environment Regents? When should I take it?

A. Students normally take the Living Environment Regents in the spring of the year that they take high school biology. Of course, the best preparation for this exam is being a good student. In other words, paying attention and asking questions in biology class, completing all homework assignments with thought and care, and studying for regular class exams are all very important. We also recommend that all students take at least one full-length practice test before taking the Living Environment Regents.

Sometimes tutoring can be very helpful in preparing for the LE Regents. For example, if a student is stuck in a poorly taught biology class or if either the student or teacher misses an unusual number of school days, tutoring can help bridge the gap. Tutoring can also be very beneficial to students who must work through learning disabilities or who just have trouble relating to the subject matter.

Q. What test taking tips and tricks can you offer?

A. The Living Environment Regents is not a particularly “tricky” test. That is, the questions are generally quite straight-forward and do not require special techniques to be answered in a reasonable amount of time. (It is very different from the SAT in this respect.) However, there are still some techniques that can be helpful.

As on all tests with multiple choice questions, it can be very useful to use the process of elimination. In other words, if you are not sure of an answer, eliminate the answer choices that you know are bad before doing anything else.

Keep an eye out for information given in one question that might help you answer another question.

The LE Regents has questions that involve reading and drawing graphs, so it is important for all students to make sure they have brushed up their skills in that area.

Q. Are there any resources you recommend for students to use for independent study?

A. Yes. The Regents Exams and Answers published by Barron’s is a very good resource for all of the Regents Exams. It contains past exams, answers, and answer explanations.

Q. Is there a Biology Regents? If so, is it different from the Living Environment Regents?

A. There is no Biology Regents. The Living Environment Regents is sometimes referred to as the Biology Regents, but that is not its formal name.

Q. How does the Living Environment Regents differ from the SAT Subject Test in Biology?

A. The SAT Subject Test in Biology and The LE Regents generally deal with the same topics. However, the SAT Subject Test in Biology is written at a higher level and is considerably more difficult than The LE Regents. A class designed to prepare students for The LE Regents will not necessarily prepare students for the SAT Subject Test in Biology.

Q. What skills and information do I need to have mastered to do well on the Living Environment Regents?

A. The test is based on what students are expected to learn in an introductory high school biology class. Topics include genetics, evolution, ecology, microbiology, and the effect of humans on the living environment.

Q. What is the format of the Living Environment Regents?

A. The Living Environment Regents consists of a mix of multiple choice and short answer (free response) questions. The test is 3 hours long- most students find that they have more than enough time. Questions ask students to remember information they have learned about biology, analyze data they are given, understand reading passages about biology, and represent information about biological phenomena.

Five Reasons to Train for Apocalypse Survival

This list of apocalyptic events that may occur in our lifetime are a popular topic throughout the survivalist community. Each apocalypse scenario that is included has a high probability of occurring in the near future. Let us dig into the list.

1. Global War

We are living in a period of history where war is prevalent in many parts of the world. These wars are costing thousands of lives. The Iraq war as of March of 2012 has taken the confirmed lives of over 115,000 civilians alone. That is the amount of people that live in Lansing Michigan, imagine the whole population of Lansing being wiped out by war, every single person that lives there gone. Now with the threats of war between the USA, Korea and Iran the concern for apocalypse survival is even higher. It is widely believed there are an estimated 20,000 active nuclear weapons in the world. It would only take a fraction of those nuclear weapons to destroy most life on earth.

2. Ecosystem

You cannot argue facts even if you are not a tree hugging environmentalist you should have concern for what is happening to our ecosystem. At least 30,000 species become extinct each year. This is the highest number in recorded history of complete species dying off. The reason for this destruction of living things is simply humans. Humans are clear cutting forests, creating and discarding harmful synthetics and slaughtering wildlife at an alarming rate. Each and every living thing on this planet plays an intricate role in each other’s survival. A simple example would be the bees in the insect world, think about the ramifications if they became extinct? The bees’ role in the ecosystem is to pollinate the plant life, which many other species rely on for survival. If the bees and other pollinating insects were to become suddenly extinct the world would suffer worldwide crop failure, resulting in famine. So yes it may be time to prepare for apocalypse survival because we do not see much chance for change in human behavior.

3. Solar Flares

If you have been watching the news this year, you probably heard about the high level of solar flare eruptions occurring from the sun. It is true that the sun has heightened periods of solar flare activity and these current flares were to be expected by scientist. What else scientist have discovered is that stars far from our solar system have been seen to increase twenty times in brightness. It is believed that these increases in brightness are actually due to giant solar flares, which are millions times more intense than what we have witnessed on earth. If our sun was to send out a solar flare of that intensity to earth we would all be vaporized in a matter of seconds. Scientist also believe that if the sun’s activity were to increase by only 1 percent would cause another ice age. Apocalypse survival may not even be a choice in the event of a giant solar flare.

4. Man Made Particle Accelerators

Imagine a small black hole, perhaps the size of a car. This black hole slowly expands overtime and as it expands it devours anything that contains matter that is in its way, this includes any living thing. Many physicists have theorized that particle accelerators such as the giant Hadron Collider that is located in Geneva, Switzerland is currently capable of creating such a black hole. Talk about manmade destruction. These black holes are made up of altered matter called strangeletes, these strangeletes have to potential to engulf our whole planet. Currently there are over two thousand physicists from over thirty countries working on the Hadron Collider. The first major particle collision test is scheduled for 2012.

5. Alien Invasion

Sounds like a science fiction film doesn’t it? The reality is that we are discovering new planets at an alarming rate due to programs such as the Kepler mission. The Kepler mission is a great example about why it may be time to prepare for apocalypse survival. The Kepler mission is specifically designed to survey a portion of our region of the Milky Way to discover dozens of Earth like planets in or near the habitable zone and determine how many of the billions of stars in our galaxy have such planets. As of December 2011, there have been 2,326 planets found that are candidates to support life. The world-renowned scientist Stephen Hawkins believes that alien life most certainly exists, and that humans should be extremely hesitant about making any contact. Hawkins fears are that Aliens may simply raid earth for its resources leaving the planet in ruin. Stephen Hawkins also stated that “We only have to look at ourselves to see how intelligent life might develop into something we wouldn’t want to meet. I imagine they might exist in massive ships, having used up all the resources from their home planet. Such advanced aliens would perhaps become nomads, looking to conquer and colonize whatever planets they can reach.”

In conclusion, the reasons listed above should at the very least cause some concern about the continuation of humanity and a reason to be ready for apocalypse survival.